ABO incompatibility Symptoms Treatment

ABO incompatibility is a response of the immune system that happens if two dissimilar and incompatible blood types are mixed together.
Symptoms of ABD incompatibility
* Back pain
* Blood in urine
* Fever
* Yellow skin (jaundice)

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How does ABO incompatibility happen?
A, B, and O are the three main blood types. The types are categorized according to little substances (molecules) on the exterior of the blood cells. In people who have diverse blood types, these molecules act as antigens or immune system triggers.

Each individual has a mixture of two of these surface molecules. Type O is without any molecule. The different blood types are:
* Type A (AA or AO molecules)
* Type B (BB or BO molecules)
* Type AB
* Type O

People who have one blood type form antibodies or proteins that make their immune system react against other blood types. Being exposed to a different type of blood can trigger a reaction. This is important when a patient wants to be given blood (transfusion) or have an organ transplant. The blood types must be matched to prevent ABO incompatibility reaction.

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For instance
* A patient with type A blood will act in response against type B or type AB blood
* A patient with type B blood will act in response against type A or type AB blood
* A patient with type O blood will act in response against type A, type B, or type AB blood
Since type O lacks any surface molecules, type O blood does not lead to an immune response. This is why type O blood cells are known to be universal donors, can be given to patients of any blood type. However, the flip side is people with type O can simply receive type O blood.

Since antibodies lie in the fluid part of blood (plasma), both blood and plasma transfusions must be matched to prevent an immune reaction.

ABO incompatibility complications can result in kidney failure, low blood pressure resulting in intensive care and even death. 

Tests and Diagnostics for ABO Compatibility
* Bilirubin level is more
* Complete blood count (CBC) shows ruptured blood cells, may also indicate mild anemia
* Lab testing of patient’s and donor’s blood shows the mismatch

ABO incompatibility treatment
Treatment may comprise:
* Drugs given to administer allergic reactions like antihistamines
* Drugs like steroids given to treat swelling and allergies
Fluids given through a vein (intravenous)
* Medicines given to raise blood pressure if it goes low

Prevention of ABO incompatibility
ABO incompatibility can be prevented. Careful testing of donor and patient blood types prior to transfusion or transplant can prevent ABO problem.

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